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- Coral Coloration and Incident Light: A Photographic Essay by Ken Feldman, Sanjay Joshi, Lauren Vernese, Elizabeth Huber, Kelly Maers and Matthew Test - Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine
- Colouring / Browning of Corals by Eric Borneman, Ronald Shimek and Dallas Warren - reefs.org
Coral Care Table - a quick reference guide to make it easier for new reefers to be able to identify, choose and care for the corals in their reef systems.
Feeding Corals - a quick guide to help maintain coral health, by providing nutrition through physical feeding
What is a Coral?
There appears to be some confusion among hobbyists as to what organisms are corals and which ones aren't. While marine biologists don't always agree what should be included as a "coral" (see below) there is little disagreement on which cnidarians are not corals (e.g. anemones, zoanthids and corallimorphs).
The following are considered by most biologists to be corals:
- true stony corals - Order Scleractinia in Subclass Hexacorallia (or Zoantharia)
- octocorals - Orders Alcyonacea (soft corals and sea fans) and Helioporacea (blue corals) in Subclass Octocorallia
- hydrocorals - Orders Millepora (fire corals) and Stylasterina (rose corals) within Class Hydrozoa
For further discussion on this topic, see What is a Coral.
The terms SPS and LPS are abbreviations for Small Polyp Stony and Large Polyp Stony, or some variation of those. So it only applies to the stony corals, members of the Scleractinia order. This classification is simply based on the size of the polyp of the coral, nothing at all to do with the care and requirements of the corals themselves. Typical corals grouped into SPS are Acropora and Pocillopora, and into LPS are Euphyllia and Catalaphyllia.
Typically referred to as "hard corals".
- Acroporidae - Acropora, Montipora, Anacropora, Astreopora
- Pocilloporidae - Pocillopora, Stylophora, Seriatopora
- Euphyllidae - Euphyllia, Catalaphyllia, Nemenzophyllia, Plerogyra, Physogyra
- Oculinidae - Oculina, Simplastrea, Schizoculina, Galaxea
- Agariciidae - Pavona, Coeloseris, Gardineroseris, Pachyseris, Leptoseris, Agaricia
- Fungiidae - Cycloseris, Diaseris, Cantharellus, Heliofungia, Fungia, Ctenactis, Herpolitha, Plyphyllia, Sandalolitha, Halomitra, Zoopilus, Lithophyllon, Podabacia
- Merulinidae - Hydnophora, Paraclavarina, Merulina, Boninastrea, Scaphophyllia
- Dendrophylliidae - Turbinaria, Duncanopsammia, Balanophyllia, Heteropsammia, Tubastraea
- Mussidae - Blastomussa, Micromussa, Acanthastrea, Lobophyllia, Symphyllia, Indophyllia, Australomussa, Cynarina, Scolymia, Mussa, Mussismilia, Isophyllia, Mycetophyllia
- Faviidae - All Faviids, too many to list
- Trachyphylliidae - Trachyphyllia
- Pectiniidae - Echinophyllia, Mycedium
- Poritidae - Stylaraea, Poritipora, Goniopora, Alveopora, Porites
Typically referred to as "soft corals".
- Alcyoniidae - Alcyonium, Cladiella, Lobophytum, Sarcophyton, Sinularia
- Clavulariidae - Clavularia
- Nephtheidae - Capnella, Dendronephthya, Nephthae
- Nidaliidae - Chironephthya, Nephthyigorgia, Nidalia, Siphonogorgia
- Xeniidae - Anthelia, Xenia
Typically referred to as "gorgonians".
- Helioporidae - Blue Coral
- Tubiporidae - Organ pipe coral
- Milleporidae - Fire coral, which are part of the Hydroids.
- Stylasteridae - Rose Coral
- Cnidarians (True Corals) - dedicated forum for discussions on all things to do with corals (identification, husbandry, ecology, biology, diseases, taxonomy etc), and covers both "LPS" and "SPS". On Reefing the Australian Way Forums.
- Coral Search - CoralSearch is based on the Corals of the World book by JEN Veron and M Stafford Smith and is designed for people wanting more information about a coral or group of corals
- Corals in the Reef tank. What They Are and How They Live by J. Charles Delbeek - Aquarium USA 1995
- Need Help! Coral ID?: Part 1 - Taxonomy of Stony Corals by Eric Borneman - Reefkeeping Magazine
- Taxonomy in the Reef Aquarium: Part 2 - A Simplified Guide to Basic Level Identification by Eric Borneman - Reefkeeping Magazine
- Taxonomy in Aquarium Corals: Part 3 - Everything Else - Soft Corals, Zoanthids, and Corallimorpharians by Eric Borneman - Reefkeeping Magazine
- The Tragedy of Artificially Colored Live Corals by Anthony Calfo - Reefkeeping Magazine
- Cometary on Dyed Corals by Eric Borneman - Reefkeeping Magazine
- How Much Light?! Analyses of Selected Shallow Water Invertebrates' Light Requirements by Dana Riddle - Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine
- Coral Placement And Aggression by Greg Davidson - Reefs.org
- Stocking the Reef Aquarium: Coral Compatibility by J. Charles Delbeek - Aquarium Fish Magazine