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Full name / species is Amyloodinium ocellatum, a dinoflagellate with a complex life cycle that infects marine fish. Commonly referred to as Marine Velvet.


The parasite has a life cycle consisting of three stages[1]:

  1. the dinospore, the infective stage, attaches to gills and skin of the host and loses its flagella to give rise to the trophont,
  2. the trophont, or feeding stage, penetrates epithelial cells by means of its rhizoids. After feeding, the trophont detaches from the host cell and falls to the bottom substrate where it forms a cyst wall to become the tomont, and
  3. the tomont is the reproductive stage and will produce the free-swimming infective dinospores.


Similar Symptoms





  1. ( Pereira, J.C., Abrantes, I., Martins, I., Barata, J., Frias, P. and Pereira, I., Ecological and morphological features of Amyloodinium ocellatum occurrences in cultivated gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L.; A case study, Aquaculture, 310(3-4) (2011) 289-297.
  2. ( Marine Velvet/Amyloodinium ocellatum: A Discussion of this Disease and its Available Treatment Options, IceCap, 2008.
  3. (Noga 2010): Noga, E.J., Fish Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2010.